At that point, I got nervous. The particular links of the electronic crime business process 100 chosen for intervention may be selected based on relationships with law enforcement and/or with hosts of the accounts at the points of presence of the links. This is referred to as threat mapping. The baseband signal or signal embedded in the carrier wave, or other types of signals currently used or hereafter developed, referred to herein as the transmission medium, may be generated according to several methods well known to one skilled in the art. 01-Chap 1 InvestigTech 10/10/07 12:41 PM Page i. OCT. 07 . This may include accessing the compromised accounts without transferring any funds to determine if the accounts are active accounts, to determine what fund balance and/or credit limit the accounts may have, to identify a pattern of transactions, and to obtain other information about the accounts. “You’ll start seeing it more as a line item than it has been” in department’s budgets, Rispoli said. Copyright © 2020 FIG. The inference engine 178 is an application that processes various separate pieces of information and/or intelligence to generate inferences or conclusions based on the intelligence. Electronic monitoring is a form of digital incarceration, often in the form of a wrist bracelet or ankle “shackle” that can monitor a subject’s location, and sometimes also their blood alcohol level or … The database contains information that associates electronic crime attack signature data related to at least one of a monetization phase and a laundering phase of an electronic crime business process with at least one of an individual, a group, and a location. The electronic criminal may attempt to transfer $1,000 from the first account to an ABA number of an account located in his bank in Budapest a few days before the day of the month of the customary $1,000 transfer, based on the expectation that his fraudulent transaction may be allowed by the fraud prevention mechanisms that are monitoring the first account. The signatures and other information developed by the transaction log analyzer 156 may be written to and stored in the threat fusion center database 180. The process of authenticating compromised accounts may often be performed by automated means, for example by computer software, which may in some contexts be referred to as malware. FIG. For example, mirroring the behavior of a legitimate account holder may involve different monetization actions for each different account. & Terms of Use. Cybercrime may … As discussed above, the individuals and groups may be named or unnamed. Continually sweep your home with a standard bug detector or more advanced technology to detect … (a) License requirements. Once acquired, account information may be sold to other electronic criminals in the underground market. These and other features will be more clearly understood from the following detailed description taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings and claims. These separate departments may not communicate effectively to cooperate in combating electronic crime. interacts online and researches product purchases While police K-9s have been used for decades in operations such as drug interdiction, bomb detection and missing person and fugitive searches, electronic detection is the newest frontier for the disciplined and loyal canines. For example, a first piece of information from a trusted, reliable source that is uncorroborated by a second party may be assigned a confidence value of 50%, the same information corroborated by a second reliable source may be assigned a confidence value of 85%, and the same information corroborated only by a third dubious source may be assigned a confidence value of 65%. Sophisticated tools and/or malware may be brought to bear to analyze accounts and/or account transaction histories to perform the monetization rapidly and efficiently. In some cases, thousands of accounts may be sold for about $50/account with the expectation that on average about $200/account can be extracted fraudulently from each account. After identifying a locus of electronic crime, in some embodiments the method includes deploying a regional field office to the region containing the specific city and staffing the field office with intelligence gathering personnel. The threat fusion center database 180 may be searched, for example using structured query language (SQL) statements including arguments defining search criteria, to selectively winnow through the contained information. The completeness of the account information, for example the availability of mother's birth date information, card security code (CSC), customer identification number (CID), card verification value (CVV), and other information, may also affect the value of the account information. Hereinafter, the combination of the word ‘authentication’ and/or ‘authenticating’ with the words ‘compromised account’—for example authentication of compromised accounts, authenticating compromised accounts, compromised account authentication, compromised account authenticating, etc.—refers to an action performed by parties other than the account holder and the institution hosting the account, an action generally performed by electronic criminals. The electronic criminal may employ automated means, for example malware, scripts, and/or small computer programs, to extract value from the compromised accounts. In support of U.S. foreign policy to promote the observance of human rights throughout the world, a license is required to export and reexport crime control and detection … Attacks can be directed to, for example, decreasing revenue, increasing cost, and increasing risk associated with particular electronic crime business segments. Traditional crimes such as theft, counterfeiting, child pornography, stalking, money laundering, and fraud will continue, albeit facilitated by advanced ... electronic, and intellectual crime. If the geographical locations do not substantially match, it can be assumed the message is associated with attempted fraud. Rispoli added he is confident that as the dogs’ successes continue to mount and news of them is disseminated, more departments will consider them a viable detection tool. For example, an electronic criminal may break into a first compromised account and initiate a transfer of funds to a transit routing number or an American Banker's Association (ABA) number of an account located in a bank in Beijing, Budapest, Moscow, or Prague. crime prevention programs and/or strategies) and outcomes (e.g. As a general observation, the complexity of laundering techniques are only limited by the creativity and imagination of the electronic criminal. For example, a legitimate operator of a retail Internet site may be notified that electronic criminals are conducting laundering operations through accounts on their retail Internet site, as evidenced by use of known malware to conduct transactions on the site. Actionable intelligence may be used by law enforcement to arrest and prosecute electronic criminals and/or to initiate investigations or advance on-going investigations of electronic criminals. The monetization may be performed on an account-by-account basis. In practice, the propagation delays in the network 190 may vary considerably based on network traffic volumes and other factors. In terms of breeds, Rispoli works with a variety including Labs, spaniels, shepherds, even mixed breeds. The reports may be used to initiate a surveillance of the electronic criminal, in hopes of identifying others complicit with the subject electronic criminal and taking down an entire ring of electronic criminals or in hopes of gaining deeper insights into the methods of electronic criminals. Unnamed individuals and groups may be identified by an alias, a moniker, a handle, a nickname, or other. DK Eyewitness Books: Crime and Detection [Lane, Brian, Buller, Laura] on Amazon.com. Enter “https://www.police1.com/” and click OK. The threat fusion center database 180 may store information shared by electronic crime suppression professionals. In many circumstances, the pathways and methods of electronic crime are so complicated that the probability of an electronic criminal being caught and successfully prosecuted is very low. Searches of the threat fusion center database 180 may also be initiated manually from the workstation 194, for example by an operator and/or intelligence personnel. In some embodiments, the intelligence gathering personnel located at the field office preferably have strong cultural and language skills that promote their mixing well with local citizens, electronic criminals, and local law enforcement, but in some circumstances valuable information still may be collected by investigators that have limited local cultural and local language skills. A variety of techniques may be employed by the transaction log analyzer 156 including analyzing the time duration between accesses to an account, the time duration between accesses to a plurality of accounts, and patterns of accesses. While several embodiments have been provided in the present disclosure, it should be understood that the disclosed systems and methods may be embodied in many other specific forms without departing from the spirit or scope of the present disclosure. The use of fingerprints in crime fiction has, of course, kept pace with its use in real-life detection. Rispoli rattles off several of those characteristics: a high hunt drive, high play drive, extroverted but not nervous, genetically healthy and possessing a good orthopedic structure. 3, of launching a field office at the location and recruiting field office personnel to work at the field office that have a knowledge of local language, local culture, and local customs. Rispoli said that one solution may be that several departments in proximity combine resources to fund a dog. I/O devices 790 may include printers, video monitors, liquid crystal displays (LCDs), touch screen displays, keyboards, keypads, switches, dials, mice, track balls, voice recognizers, card readers, paper tape readers, or other well-known input devices. The baseband signal or signal embodied in the carrier wave generated by the network connectivity devices 792 may propagate in or on the surface of electrical conductors, in coaxial cables, in waveguides, in optical media, for example optical fiber, or in the air or free space. The intervention may include taking steps to thwart or impede the various techniques identified as used in the subject electronic crime. For example, a second compromised account may be a credit card account. At block 212, the credential collection technique, the monetization technique, and the laundering technique used by the electronic crime are analyzed. The method also comprises identifying a person of potential interest and/or a group of potential interest in the electronic crime based on the analyzing and on the database. While police K-9s have been used for decades in operations such as drug interdiction, bomb detection and missing person and fugitive searches, electronic detection is the newest frontier for the disciplined and loyal canines. Jordan, who had been training dogs in accelerant detection for two decades, had heard of the scent’s discovery in Connecticut a few years earlier, and when the Internet Crimes Against Children Task Force asked him to train a dog, he thought he could do it. Further, in some embodiments, advantages and benefits can be obtained by using the teachings of the present disclosure to work to combat electronic crime in the monetization phase alone, in the laundering phase alone, or in the monetization and the laundering phases alone, without working in the credential collection phase of the electronic crime process. The method also comprises providing the actionable reports to one of an institution that provides accounts that were the subject of the electronic crime and a law enforcement agency for moving against electronic criminals. Since cybercrime is like a smart key, we can build a smarter keyhole to detect illegal entry. We can do that by detecting attempts to pick the lock. For example, in one case, only the monetization technique is known and analyzed. To calibrate the address locator 172 for the current propagation delays in the network 190 at any particular time, a network of calibration nodes (not shown) may be established at known locations, and these calibration nodes are periodically contacted, for example using the UNIX ping message, to update a map of propagation delays currently being experienced in the network 190. The threat manager platform 152 and the applications and tools 156-178 that it supports may be accessed and controlled from the workstation 194. The books may be sold on an internet auction site and the money proceeds deposited in a third compromised account, for example a bank account. Some electronic crime involves fraudulent transfer of money, for example credit card theft and/or fake loans, and the financial rewards can be very high for this kind of electronic crime. The computer may have been used in the commission of a crime, or it may be the target. Crime Pattern Detection Using Data Mining Shyam Varan Nath Oracle Corporation [email protected] +1(954) 609 2402 Abstract Data mining can be used to model crime detection … The computer system 780 includes a processor 782 (which may be referred to as a central processor unit or CPU) that is in communication with memory devices including secondary storage 784, read only memory (ROM) 786, random access memory (RAM) 788, input/output (I/O) devices 790, and network connectivity devices 792. While only one processor 792 is shown, multiple processors may be present. The method also comprises investigating to confirm involvement of the person and/or the group and intervening to reduce the electronic crime threat posed by the person and/or the group. If the location identified in the challenge response does not agree substantially with the location determined by the location tool, the access attempt may be rejected and an alert may be raised. “As long as it has the characteristics to do the job, that’s all that counts,” he said. & Terms of Use. Prevention and Detection of Electronic Harassment and Surveillance (PDEHS) is a human rights organization that is established to identify and network with victims of crime; to … It is an insight of this disclosure that, over time, electronic criminals have been compelled to increase the speed or velocity of the electronic crime business process 100, to avoid detection and for other reasons. In an embodiment, the malware de-compiler 164 may comprise a plurality of de-compilers, each directed to de-compiling executable malware targeted to different processors and/or operating systems. Alternatively, the analyzing may be performed manually by intelligence personnel. "The sergeant from the computer crimes unit relayed to us that when they executed search warrants, they were always missing something because of the nature of what they were looking for," Real said. “It was Jared Fogle. The actionable report may provide sufficient information to readily enable local law enforcement in the venue where the electronic crime attack was launched to arrest and charge one or more electronic criminals, thereby earning praises and perhaps advancement for their skilled police work. The actionable report may provide valuable information for financial institutions, for example banks and credit card issuers, for use in resisting and countering electronic crime. The information may be of uncertain reliability and may be associated with a subjective confidence estimate or value. The account holder may be tricked into releasing their account information willingly, for example in response to a fraudulent message posing as a trusted source or posing as a foreigner needing help from an honest person to transfer a large amount of funds. The inference engine 178 may update the threat fusion center database 180 with the newly generated inferences, perhaps accompanied with confidence estimates. 3, a method 200 is now discussed. Frustrated by mounds and mounds of trash, police brought Jordan in with another one of his dogs, Chip. The electronic criminal may then successively work through the accounts in priority order, extracting value from the accounts. Specific electronic criminals and/or members of electronic crime groups may be arrested and brought to justice. The storage devices are so small that the area they can be hidden are seemingly endless. The intervention can also include taking steps to thwart or impede the various techniques that are anticipated to be used to complete an on-going crime, an approach that can be useful when actual identities are unknown or uncertain but an individual or a group attack signature is recognized. Additionally, identification of the signature may promote linking the subject attack and/or electronic crime to a specific piece of known malware, for example malware that is stored in the threat fusion center database 180. 2, a system 150 for electronic crime detection and tracking is described. Partial analysis may also occur because the crime is still in process and efforts are being made to stop later stages of the electronic crime based on information gained from earlier stages of the electronic crime. The use of the threat fusion center, for example, may promote the inference that a specific electronic crime attack combining a particular set of account intrusion methods is distinctive of and is probably launched by an individual X. This may be called “Tools” or use an icon like the cog. The malware parser 168 is an application that analyzes the malware assembly language source code generated by the malware de-compiler 164 to identify characteristic coding styles of the developer. Electronic surveillance is another form of electronic harassment. The malware may promote authenticating compromised accounts. A variety of complementary techniques and procedures are disclosed that promote mapping an instance of electronic crime or attempted electronic crime to one or more electronic tools used to perpetrate the electronic crime and to map from the electronic tools to individual electronic criminals or to a group of electronic criminals. Intervening can take the form of taking steps to block or thwart one or more of the tools and techniques. Alternatively, in some contexts, the term attack signature may be used to refer to the set of observable and unobservable actions associated with a particular tool and/or malware. As discussed above, the individual may be identified by name or may be unnamed. 6,947,978 B2, issued Sep. 20, 2005, by Stephen Mark Huffman et al., which is hereby incorporated by reference. For example, the malware may conduct the account accesses and funds transactions automatically. “Everybody stores everything, either on their cell phone or an SD card,” Jordan said. Despite the dogs’ successes, there are still challenges to surmount to transition from an investigator’s dream to case-breaking reality. Crime detection and investigation used to depend mostly on witnesses, hearsay or forced confessions. The accounts may also comprise business accounts, such as Internet auction accounts and/or Internet retail outlet accounts, that may provide access to stored financial account information and/or may provide the authority or an identity to complete transactions as a buyer, as a seller, or as both. In block 220, intelligence personnel investigate to confirm the involvement in the electronic crime, or another electronic crime, of the person and/or group identified in block 216, for example field office personnel located in a foreign country where electronic criminals associated with the subject electronic crime are known to gather. The identification of the person and/or group may be performed using the inference engine application 178 or by conducting a manual search of the threat fusion center database 180, for example using the workstation 194. The information contained in the baseband signal or signal embedded in the carrier wave may be ordered according to different sequences, as may be desirable for either processing or generating the information or transmitting or receiving the information. “Right now, the biggest difficulty in agencies that want them is funding,” Jordan said. The time duration of a human being accessing an account manually may exhibit characteristic delays between accesses as well as characteristic timing variability. Threat mapping may provide actionable intelligence that may be used to intervene to reduce the electronic crime threat. The disclosure should in no way be limited to the illustrative implementations, drawings, and techniques illustrated below, but may be modified within the scope of the appended claims along with their full scope of equivalents. Current efforts at addressing electronic crime focus primarily on prevention of account credential acquisition by electronic criminals, an approach which may be referred to in some contexts as asset focused. The inference engine 178 may delete information and/or revise confidence estimates of estimates that are stored in the threat fusion center database 180 in response to an evolving understanding of electronic crime and/or specific electronic criminals. A user may invoke an interface on the workstation 194 that promotes the user executing one or more of the applications and/or tools 156-178 and/or searching in the threat fusion center database 180. In an embodiment, a method of reducing electronic crime is disclosed. The 950-ASH is used as a general purpose hydrocarbon gas detector for applications including gas leak detection… The information may associate electronic crime attack signature information with individuals, groups, and/or locations, for example, when the threat fusion center database 180 is searched with artfully constructed queries. Select the option or tab named “Internet Options (Internet Explorer)”, “Options (Firefox)”, “Preferences (Safari)” or “Settings (Chrome)”. “It’s just teaching the dogs to detect another odor in a world of many odors,” Rispoli said. The credential collection phase 102 may comprise acquisition of account numbers and authentication information whereby the accounts may be accessed and transactions on the accounts may be initiated. Privacy Policy 1, a typical electronic crime business process 100 is discussed. The electronic criminal may prioritize the compromised accounts on the basis of an assessment of the ease of extraction and the maximum value of extraction for each of the accounts, based on the authentication of the compromised accounts. (e) Computer data refers to any representation of facts, information, or concepts in a form suitable for processing in a computer system including a program suitable to cause a computer system to perform a function and includes electronic documents and/or electronic … The stratification of accounts into risk categories and/or the assessment of a numerical risk value may promote the selective application of more or less aggressive anti-fraud mechanisms to specific accounts based on their assessed risk. “The dog was in there five minutes and indicated on a box full of devices,” Jordan said. A system for electronic crime reduction is provided, comprising a computer system, a database, a malware de-compiler, a malware parser, and an inference engine. Since then, Jordan requires investigators to show proof of the green-light for the dog from their commanding officer. Electronic/Cyber Crime and Fraud; Emerging attack trends in Cybercrime; CryptoCurrency analysis for ecrime investigations; Digital Forensics tools and techniques, investigative procedures, and evidence acquisition, handling and preservation; Frameworks for avoiding damages to systems and networks, including blocklisting and detection … As technology advances, surveillance devices are getting smaller and more discreet, which is bad news for targets of e-harassment. The intervention may include arresting and charging the electronic criminal, monitoring the communications of the electronic criminal, monitoring the movements of the electronic criminal to obtain further understanding of electronic crime methods and/or to identify one or more additional electronic criminals, to freeze funds in accounts associated with the electronic criminal or the electronic crime, and to further refine fraud detection and prevention systems. By attacking these three economic legs of the electronic crime business process, the electronic criminals will be driven, by rational consideration of their economic self-interest, to seek other less toughened targets or entirely different modes of criminal activity. The information contained by the threat fusion center database 180 may come from a variety of sources including the outputs of ongoing investigations of specific electronic crimes, information shared from financial institutions, information shared by law enforcement agencies, and others. The inference engine application, when executed on the computer system, analyzes the distinctive coding preferences identified by the malware parser application in combination with searching the database to identify one of an individual, a group, and a location associated with the electronic crime. Actionable intelligence may be used by financial institutions to better protect their accounts in the acquisition phase 102, to resist and/or block authentication of compromised accounts and extracting value from the compromised accounts during the monetization phase 104, and to track and disrupt the transfer of stolen funds during the laundering phase 106. At block 270, an actionable report is generated based on the available information about the electronic crime, based on investigation using the threat manager platform 152, and based on the harvested intelligence stored in the threat fusion center database 180. During the process of authenticating the compromised accounts, the electronic criminal may have determined, for example, that the first compromised account has a history of transferring $1,000 once a month on or about a certain day of the month to a bank account in a city proximate to, for example, Budapest. Copyright © 2020 Police1. At the present time, many financial organizations are not well structured to adequately combat the complex and coordinated electronic crime business process 100. The information may pertain to identities of electronic criminals, geographic locations known as a center or locus of electronic crime, malware tools employed by electronic criminals, methods of mirroring legitimate account transactions and/or behaviors during monetization, preferred methods of laundering, prices of unauthenticated and of authenticated accounts in the underground markets, trends and baselines of electronic crime, and other. , intelligence gathering personnel are organized based on the reusable unknown malware net... He was told mirroring the behavior of a crime … 01-Chap 1 InvestigTech 10/10/07 12:41 Page. That comprise the threat fusion center database 180 may promote geolocating logical addresses to about the Author Ted is. To as authenticating compromised accounts applications and tools 156-178 that comprise the threat center... And mounds of trash, police were investigating a suspected child pornographer who also was a hoarder 786 is to. 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